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A history of philosophy by Frederick C Copleston

By Frederick C Copleston

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6 In other words, Ockham 1 Exposilio lIu,ea, 3, • Ibid. 2, 90, R. • See vol. II, p. 154. • Summa loti us logiclU, • Quodlibet, 4, I, 12. 19. stracting species intelligibiles. ntelhg~tur and not id quod intelligitur. in. a posi~ion to consider briefly Ockham's theory of sCience. He diVides sCience into two main types, real science and rational science. The former (scientia realis) is concerned with real things, in a sense to be discussed presently, While the latter (scientia rationalis) is concerned with terms which do not stand immediately for real things.

1 In other words, intuition is immediate apprehension of a thing or of things leading naturally to the judgment that the thing exists or to some other contingent proposition about it, such as 'it is white'. The guarantee of such judgments is simply evidence, the evident character of the intuition, together with the natural character of the process leading to the judgment. 'I say, therefore, that intuitive knowledge is proper individual knowledge . . ' 8 It is clear that Ockham is not speaking simply of sensation: he is speaking of an intellectual intuition of an individual thing, which is caused by that thing and not by anything else.

For example, if God were to create a man out of nothing, this would not affect any other man, as far as his essence is concerned. Again, one individual thing can be annihilated without the annihilation or destruction of another individual thing. 'One man can be annihilated by God without any other man being annihilated or destroyed. '2 As to the opinion of Scotus that there is a formal distinction between the common nature and the individuality, it is true that he 'excelled others in subtlety of judgment';8 but if the alleged distinction is an objective and not purely mental distinction, it must be real.

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