By Morris, Peter Robin
Improvement of the thermionic valve. historic survey of early examine in semiconductors. improvement of the transistor. significant technical techniques utilized in semiconductor gadget fabrication. evaluation of significant components affecting the expansion of the USA semiconductor undefined. assessment of the criteria affecting the expansion of the japanese and South Korean semiconductor industries. overview of the ecu semiconductor
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33 This device was a significant advance on previous types, largely due to the precision with which junction depths could be controlled by diffusion. This allowed a far greater degree of control of basewidth resulting in improved high frequency performance. 34 This resulted in cut-off frequencies in excess of 100 MHz. Typically, devices made by this method would be fabricated upon the surface of a single-crystal N-type slice. Firstly, a P-type impurity layer would be diffused over the whole of the slice surface.
This was first done by the General Electric Company, where silicon was purified to a higher degree than that commercially available at the time. e. beryllium and aluminum) would affect the rectifying properties of the crystal, and these were added, achieving some success, although the work proceeded largely on an ad hoc basis. ) In this context, Petritz states that 'even as late as 1948 rectifiers were made with tin-doped germanium which had a very high back voltage resistance for inverse voltages of 100 volts, and it was thought that tin was the doping element.
This was necessary because otherwise the P-N junction areas were too large, resulting in high depletion layer capacitance and therefore degrading high frequency performance. It was now necessary to attach the base and emitter leads. Attachment of the base lead was particularly difficult with this type of construction and various methods were attempted including the alloy diffused method already described. Development of the transistor 37 Note that the working area of the mesa transistor is confined to a thin layer at the surface.