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Extra resources for A Kinematical Interpretation of Electromagnetism (1919)(en)(8s)
6), which possess unpaired electron spins and consequently a magnetic moment. When considering the fact that the magnetic moment of an electron amounts to 658 times the magnetic moment of a proton, one can easily understand why even the slightest amounts of paramagnetic substances can lower the relaxation times considerably. 2 Phenomenological Description of Relaxation Processes For spin systems with a sufficiently high molecular mobility, relaxation processes can be described by exponential functions with the time constant T1 or T2.
9a). Accordingly, the magnetization M is rotated by 180° when the duration of the RF pulse is doubled at the same flux density B1. This pulse, which inverts the magnetization from the positive to the negative z-direction, is called 180° or π pulse (Fig. 9b). Remark: Precisely speaking, a short RF pulse with the carrier frequency ωRF will excite not only the nuclei that exactly fulfill the resonance condition ωRF = ω0, but also nuclei whose resonance frequency slightly differs from ωRF. This is because the frequency spectrum of an RF pulse of finite duration consists of a continuous frequency band around the nominal frequency ωRF (Fig.
Due to this fact, the components fan out (dephasing), and the resulting transverse magnetization decreases (Fig. 15). In real MR experiments always macroscopic samples are examined, so that not only the fluctuating local magnetic fields, but also spatial field inhomogeneities of the external field B0, introduced by technical imperfections, contribute to the transverse relaxation. As both effects superpose on one another, the resulting effective relaxation time T2* is always shorter than the real, substancespecific transverse relaxation time T2.