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A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten

By Michael Quinten

A one-stop, concise advisor on choosing and measuring skinny movie thickness via optical methods.

This useful booklet covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the speculation and perform of thickness size, and sleek functions. In so doing, it indicates the functions and possibilities of optical thickness decision and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of size units besides their evaluate methods.

Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 offers the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in house and topic. the most subject of this publication, the decision of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack through measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is handled within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. eventually, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous commercial functions of the layer thickness dimension, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.

Aimed at commercial and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands occupied with all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, strategy regulate, real-time tracking, and applications.

Content:
Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical size (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness choice (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 functions (pages 149–185):

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2:90Þ j j |fflfflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflfflffl} linear term xð1Þ k |fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl} quadratic term xð2Þ j k l |fflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl{zfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflfflffl} cubic term xð3Þ ðanisotropic mediumÞ for each component i ¼ x, y, z of P. As we are interested in optical thickness determination, we can restrict our discussion in the following to the linear term. Nonlinear effects are negligible or even do not occur. Then, it might be necessary to consider anisotropy in the linear term. For simplicity, we assume optical isotropy for which the susceptibility simply is a scalar quantity.

11], with kind permission of Springer Science þ Business Media. 10 Diffraction by a grating – interference of waves from periodically arranged slits of width b and periodicity g. From each slit a wave propagates in the direction given by the diffraction angle b. From slit to slit they have the phase difference w ¼ ð2p=lÞg Á sin b and a phase factor exp(iw). These waves superpose in the far field (far from the grating surface). Then, the radiant flux through the slits of the grating into the half space behind the grating is  2 NÀ1  sin2 ððpb=lÞsin bÞ sin2 ððpNg=lÞsin bÞ X n Jgrating ðbÞ / Jslit ðbÞ Á  ðexpðiwÞÞ  / Á :  n¼0  sin2 ððpg=lÞsin bÞ ððpb=lÞsin bÞ2 ð2:61Þ The intensity diffracted by the grating into direction of the angle b consists of two factors: the first Jslit(b) describes the diffraction by a single slit and the second results from the multiple interference of the waves coming from all N slits of the grating.

In contrast, in an amorphous semiconductor the absorption spectrum reaches into the gap region. The reason is that the electronic states in the valence band and conduction band can be divided into localized states and states that are randomly distributed through these amorphous semiconductors. While the distribution of localized states follow a square root functional dependence in the band region, the distribution of randomly distributed states shows an exponential functional dependence in the tail region.

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