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Extra info for Acamprosate in Relapse Prevention of Alcoholism
J Neural Trans 92(1): 5765 Kuner T, Schoepfer R, Korpi ER (1993) Ethanol inhibits glutamate-induced currents in heteromeric NMDA receptor subtypes. Neuroreport 5(3): 237-300 Kutsuwada T, Kashiwabuchi N, Morei J, Sakimura K, Kushiya E, Araki K, Meguro H, Masaki J, Kumanishi T, Arakawa M, Mishina M (1992) Molecular diversity of the NMDA receptor channel. Nature 358: 36-41 Lal H, Harris CM, Springfield AC, Bhadra S, Emmett-Oglesby MW (1988) Characterization of a pentylenetetrazol-like interoceptive stimulus produced by ethanol withdrawal.
For animals it is considerably more difficult because introspective assessments (in many ways the most important) are impossible; you cannot ask a rat how much it needs a drink! Weare therefore thrown back on observation, but without much idea of what exactly we are looking for. Again, we must improvise, and since we have characterised negative aspects of craving as pseudo-withdrawal we chose our measures from those that have been found useful in true withdrawal in rodents, together with other measures that should intuitively be important in craving.
The positive aspects of craving are simple to understand and are a reasonable explanation for initiation of drinking behaviour. The negative aspects of withdrawal are less easy to understand, but they are at least as important because they appear to provide a better explanation for loss of control once a relapse into drinking has been initiated. Negative Aspects of Craving When drug administration is repeated frequently, an almost inevitable consequence is the development of drug tolerance. Among the mechanisms for this are adaptations within the central nervous system that oppose the effects of the drug (see Samson and Harris 1992).