By Dr. Gerhard Meier, Professor Dr. Erich Sackmann, Dr. J. G. Grabmaier (auth.)
Over the earlier ten years liquid crystals have attracted a lot curiosity and massive development has been made with admire to our wisdom during this box. the new improvement used to be initiated commonly via the paintings of J. L. Fergason and G. H. Heilmeier, who mentioned the significance of liquid crystals for thermographic and electro optic functions. the 1st a part of this ebook is a quick advent to the physics of liquid crystals. The buildings and homes of the 3 uncomplicated different types of liquid crystals are mentioned. a different paragraph is dedicated to electric-field results, that are vital in exhibit purposes. The bankruptcy on clinical purposes offers an perception into the capability purposes of liquid crystals in basic learn, with particular emphasis on explaining the foundations concerned. teams of power purposes are mentioned intimately: 1. using liquid crystals as anisotropic solvent for the selection of molecular homes by way of spectroscopy, and a pair of. their use in analytical chemistry, really in gasoline chromatography. The opposite method comprises using the dissolved molecules as microscopic probes within the research of the dynamical molecular constitution of anisotropic fluid platforms (e.g. organic membranes). This very important strategy can be described.
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A) Perinaphthenyl radical. (b) Esr spectrum of perinaphthenyl radical in p-azoxyanisole at the isotropic-nematic transition temperature (135°C). The spectrum is a superposition of the spectra of randomly and partially oriented species. Note that the spectrum consists of seven quartets (relative intensity I: 3: 3: I) with the rcla tive intensi ties 1:6: 15: 20: 15:6: 1 (reprinted from Mobius ct a1. ). 49 Scientific Applications of Liquid Crystals The 28 line spectrum is composed of seven groups of 1:3:3: 1 quartets with relative intensities 1:6: 15 :20: 15 :6: 1.
9 and Table 4 show that the splitting of the quartet lines (that is a*(H 2)) is increased whereas the splitting of the septet lines is decreased by the partial alignment of the radical in the liquid crystalline phase. 1 % may also be observed. These lines yield the splittings a*(C) given in Table 4. Table 4. Comparison of the coupling constants (al" = a j + (aj - Azz)Szz) and the g-factor (g* = g + (g - gzzlSzz) of the perinaphthenyl radical taken in an isotropic and in a nematic phase of p-azoxyanisol.
Three independent constants are necessary in order to describe the orientation of molecules with only one plane of symmetry. Influence of Internal Molecular Motions The inter-nuclear distances determined from the direct coupling constants Dij are averages over the vibrational motions of the molecules. In order to compare the structural parameters derived from the nmr spectra with the corresponding values obtained by other techniques, such as electron diffraction or microwave spectroscopy, the effects of the vibrations have to be taken into account.