By Gideon Freudenthal
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1. difficulties and strategies of Analysis.- 2. technological know-how and Philosophy; Newton and Leibniz.- three. ‘Absolute’ and ‘Relative’ Space.- four. Newton’s concept of house and the distance concept of Newtonianism.- five. The Leibniz-Newton dialogue and the Leibniz-Clarke Correspondence.- One/Element and approach in Classical Mechanics.- I. Newton’s Justification of the idea of Absolute Space.- 1. Absolute movement and Absolute area; Newton’s First Presupposition.- 2. facts of the life of a Vacuum; Newton’s moment Presupposition.- three. ‘Density’ and ‘Quantity of Matter’.- four. evidence of the lifestyles of Empty Space.- five. the basic homes of a Particle in Empty area; the matter of Gravitation.- 6. Newton’s legislation of Inertia.- 7. A unmarried Particle in Empty house; Newton’s basic Presupposition.- II. Leibniz’s Foundations of Dynamics.- 1. Leibniz’s New degree of Force.- 2. Descartes’ blunders and the bounds of the belief of Leibniz.- three. motion motrice.- four. Leibniz’s legislations of Inertia.- five. Absolute movement and Absolute Space.- 6. Density.- 7. legislation of influence, Elasticity, and the concept that of a fabric Body.- III. The dialogue among Leibniz and Newton at the notion of Science.- 1. Newton’s degree of strength and God’s Intervention.- 2. Newton’s notion of Gravity and area because the Sensorium Dei.- three. Leibniz’s Critique of the Unscientific personality of Newton’s Philosophy.- four. The Clock as a systematic Model.- five. technological know-how and Unscientific Philosophy: Newton’s Contradictory Views.- 6. Results.- Two/Element and process in smooth Philosophy.- IV. the idea that of point in seventeenth Century average Philosophy.- 1. Bacon.- 2. Descartes.- three. Newton’s Critique of Descartes; Boyle’s Compromise.- V. the concept that of point within the Systematic Philosophy of Hobbes.- VI. the idea that of point in 18th Century Social Philosophy.- 1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- 2. Adam Smith.- VII. the connection among common and Social Philosophy within the paintings of Newton, Rousseau, and Smith.- Three/On the Social background of the Bourgeois notion of the Individual.- VIII. England sooner than the Revolution.- 1. city, nation, and the Poor.- 2. The Politics of the Stuarts.- three. The Church.- four. estate and Protestantism opposed to Feudalism and Papism.- five. useful and Theoretical fight for Sovereignty.- IX. The Antifeudal Social Philosophy of Hobbes.- 1. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Nature as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- 2. Thomas Aquinas’ Doctrine of Society as a Hierarchical Organism of Unequal Elements.- three. Catholic Church and state country within the seventeenth Century.- four. Hobbes’s concept of the nation as a freelance of equivalent and Autarchic Individuals.- five. Hobbes’s Political Program.- 6. the talk with Feudal idea and the Analytic-Synthetic Method.- X. the increase of Civil Society in England.- 1. The Levellers.- 2. The Suppression of the Levellers.- three. recovery: Whigs and Tories.- four. The Theoretical Controversies among Whigs and Tories; Locke and Newton as Whigs.- five. The Reign of the ‘Plusmakers’.- XI. replacement Conceptions of Civil Society.- 1. The Capitalistic Commodity construction of self sufficient owners: Adam Smith.- 2. the straightforward Commodity construction of autonomous deepest vendors: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.- XII. Civil Society and Analytic-Synthetic Method.- 1. Society as an mixture of Autarchic Individuals.- 2. research as deciding on the houses of unmarried Individuals.- three. Results.- Four/Atom and Individual.- XIII. The Bourgeois person and the basic houses of a Particle in Newton’s Thought.- 1. Passivity and job as crucial Properties.- 2. Newton’s ‘Ego sum et cogito’.- three. Freedom and Spontaneity.- four. Will and physique; energetic and Passive Principle.- five. The method of ‘Natural Freedom’ within the kingdom and on the planet System.- 6. method of Philosophy.- 7. Newtonian Ideology.- XIV. aspect and procedure within the Philosophy of Leibniz.- 1. The ‘Oppressed Counsellor’.- 2. at the Social Philosophy of Leibniz.- three. The Double experience of illustration in Mechanics and Metaphysics.- Afterword.- Notes.- Bibliography of Works Cited.- checklist of Abbreviations.- identify Index.
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Extra info for Atom and Individual in the Age of Newton: On the Genesis of the Mechanistic World View (Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science, Volume 88)
According to assumption (1) two bodies with the weights 1 and 4, which fall from the heights 4 and 1, will acquire the force necessary to rise to their former heights. According to assumption (2) the forces of both bodies are equal at the end of the fall. However the quantity of motion (mv) of each of the two bodies is different. In a free fall from a height s, as Galileo showed, v ex Vs. Consequently, the body A has a velocity (in the appropriate units) proportional to y4 = 2 after a fall from the height 4; body B has a velocity proportional to yT = 1 after a fall from the height 1.
In the refutation of the Cartesian laws of impact, the 'general law of nature' concerning the equivalence of cause and effect is confirmed. Leibniz had so far applied this principle only in the special case in which a freely falling, uniformly accelerated body represents the 'whole cause' and the raising of another body represents the 'entire effect'. Leibniz formulates his own laws of impact on the basis of this principle. These laws of impact, however, are contrary to 'experience', and it seems as if Leibniz has fallen into the rationalist error of deriving laws of nature from a theoretical 'principle' without concern for empirical experience.
The place in which a body can move without resistance is defined as a vacuum (op. 3, Def. III; 247). If body is what offers resistance, and if in a vacuum no resistance is met with, then Newton can define a vacuum in the following manner: And vacuum I call all space which is destitute of bodies of this kind (that is, material bodies - G. ) (op. 4, Scholium, 222, 247). And that there really are such empty spaces, can be seen from empirically ascertained facts. At a height of 200 miles, Newton calculated, the air is thinner than that at the surface of the earth in a ratio of 75 .