By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Committee on Challenges for the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century
Chemistry and chemical engineering have replaced considerably because the Nineteen Nineties. they've got broadened their scope - into biology, nanotechnology, fabrics technology, computation and complicated tools of method platforms engineering and keep an eye on - quite a bit that the programmes in such a lot chemistry and chemical engineering departments now slightly resemble the classical proposal of chemistry. "Beyond the Molecular Frontier" brings jointly learn, discovery and invention around the complete spectrum of the chemical sciences - from basic, molecular-level chemistry to large-scale chemical processing expertise. This displays the way in which the sphere has advanced, the synergy at universities among examine and schooling in chemistry and chemical engineering, and how chemists and chemical engineers interact in undefined. The advancements in technological know-how and engineering in the course of the twentieth century have made it attainable to dream of latest objectives that would formerly were thought of unthinkable. This booklet identifies the main possibilities and demanding situations for the chemical sciences, from uncomplicated study to societal wishes and from terrorism defence to environmental defense, and it appears on the ways that chemists and chemical engineers can interact to give a contribution to a much better destiny.
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Extra info for Beyond the Molecular Frontier: Challenges for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
Some manufacturing processes use the special properties of zeolites, inorganic substances that have interconnected cavities of well-defined size and shape. Reactions can be catalyzed inside the cavities, and they are normally selective for the shape of the substrate that can enter the cavities, and for the shape of the SYNTHESIS AND MANUFACTURING 27 products being formed. Selective absorption into the cavities also makes zeolites useful in separations. Many laboratory syntheses of important structural types of compounds are too long or complex to work well in manufacturing.
2 Chemistries such as gasification, carboxylation, carbonylation, partial oxidation, and salt splitting may see much greater emphasis in manufacturing. org/. SYNTHESIS AND MANUFACTURING 35 otic materials of construction than we now have available. Demands for greater capital, energy, and material efficiency will require the development of process systems that are more tightly integrated. Such systems will need greater mass and energy recycling, more by-product reuse, and advances in computer-aided, plantwide process control.
A Nobel Prize to Geoffrey Wilkinson and Ernest O. Fisher in 1973 recognized their creation, and understanding, of a new class of substances—unrelated to anything found in nature—called metallocenes. Originally, these organometallic sandwich compounds (and their “open-faced” versions) were of interest purely as new occupants of the chemical universe, as if a new type of planet had been created in the astronomical universe. However, some versions of such sandwich compounds have been shown more recently to act as catalysts for very significant reactions, and they are now applied in the manufacturing of polymers.