By Lawrence J. Berliner, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
This quantity constitutes a compilation of the most recent experiments and theories on a quickly evolving and maturing box in MRI/MRS, that is using the strong isotope 13-C. The 13-C is used to probe the chemistry, mechanism, and serve as in residing platforms.
all of the chapters are written via specialists within the box who speak about subject matters resembling `Tracer idea and the Suitability of 13-C NMR', `Applications of 13-C to reports of Human mind Metabolism', and so forth.
Read Online or Download Biological Magnetic Resonance: Volume 15: In vivo Carbon-13 NMR (Biological Magnetic Resonance) PDF
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Extra info for Biological Magnetic Resonance: Volume 15: In vivo Carbon-13 NMR (Biological Magnetic Resonance)
Multiplicity arises in a 13C NMR spectrum due to splitting of a resonance of one nucleus by another covalently bound, NMR-visible nucleus. These are usually protons, other 13C carbons, and occasionally a phosphate moiety. Splittings that arise from neighboring 13C-labeled carbons (J= 34-55 Hz in glutamate and lactate) can result in a messy spectrum where the peaks appear either as multiplets (well-resolved) or as broad, irregularly shaped peaks (often the case in vivo). It is usually important to take as a measure of spectral intensity the area of the multiplet, rather than peak height.
1 %, which will contribute to the total measured A*. 011A. Often, the natural abundance 13C is subtracted out of the NMR data as a baseline, natural abundance spectrum, and poses no problem for calculations. If substrate fractional enrichment is specifically measured, the natural abundance 13C is included in this measurement, and can pose few problems, especially if the substrate fractional enrichment is very high. Occasionally,a very high rate of labeled substrateinfusion, or the presence of appreciable natural abundance 13C in a metabolite pool, can make calculations more difficult.
Time will be dB*/dt. The actual flux rate JA must be calculated, and the correct equations to use depend on the choice of model. A common model to choose is a multicompartmental catenary model, where several pools exist in such a way that label flows sequentially from one to another. We have chosen to discuss the simplified, special case in which there is only one input into each pool, and no backward fluxes. The following models describe the special cases of metabolic steady state and pre- or post-isotopic steady state, or isotopic steady state with a metabolic perturbation.