By Michael L. Shuler, Fikret Kargi
Bioprocess Engineering, moment Edition completely updates the top introductory textbook on biochemical and bioprocess engineering to mirror advances which are remodeling the sphere -- from genomics to mobile engineering, modeling to nonconventional organic platforms. It introduces thoughts with vast applicability in prescribed drugs, biologics, drugs, environmental engineering, and past.
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Additional info for Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts
8. 2. 1. Introduction Living cells are composed of high-molecular-weight polymeric compounds such as proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and other storage materials (fats, polyhydroxybutyrate, glycogen). These biopolymers constitute the major structural elements of living Sec. cou 10/11/01 10:46 PM Page 26 cells. For example, a typical bacterial cell wall contains polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids; cell cytoplasm contains proteins mostly in the form of enzymes; in eucaryotes, the cell nucleus contains nucleic acids mostly in the form of DNA.
The right temperature, pH, and moisture levels vary from one organism to another. Some cells can grow at -20°C (in a brine to prevent freezing), while others can grow at 120°C (where water is under high enough pressure to prevent boiling). Cells that grow best at low temperatures (below 20°C) are usually called psychrophiles, while those with temperature optima in the range of 20° to 50°C are mesophiles. Organisms that grow best at temperatures greater than 50°C are thermophiles. Many organisms have pH optima far from neutrality; some prefer pH values down to 1 or 2, while others may grow well at pH 9.
All of the phases between one M phase and the next are known collectively as the interphase. The interphase is divided into three phases: G1, S, and G2. The cell increases in size during the interphase period. In the S phase the cell replicates its nuclear DNA. There are key checkpoints in the cycle when the cell machinery must commit to entry to the next phase. Checkpoints exist for entry into the S and M phases and exit from M phase. Cells may also be in a G0 state, which is a resting state where there is no growth.