By Sydney Lou Bonnick
As a expertise, bone densitometry is basically fairly remarkable. the facility to quantify the density of the bones at various skeletal websites has really revolutionized the method of a few illnesses, an important of that's osteoporosis. utilizing the knowledge from the machines, in particular dual-energy X ray absortiometry (DXA) know-how, physicians can suggest and prescribe interventions that might sluggish bone loss and decrease the chance of disabling fractures. The amazing advances in skeletal imaging with densitometry units have made attainable quantitative and diagnostic exams of skeletal constitution. but it is actually the ability and problem of the technologist that permits all of this to take place. during this up to date and improved 3rd variation in their most excellent and hugely praised Bone Densitometry for Technologists, Sydney Lou Bonnick, MD, FACP, and Lori Ann Lewis, MRT, CDT, back supply the main accomplished assessment of the criteria and advancements within the box. right here radiologic technologists, nurse practitioners, doctor assistants, and committed densitometry technologists can locate not just the state of the art guidance for bone density trying out, but in addition a variety of different subject matters, together with a number of new chapters. those contain a brand new bankruptcy at the functionality of DXA lumbar backbone, proximal femur and forearm reviews; one on utilizing Absolute danger to foretell Fracture danger in scientific perform; and one other supplying examples of hugely educational DXA photographs during which artifacts or structural alterations could be obvious. There are 2 new appendices and the opposite 10 appendices from the former variation were up to date anyplace essential to mirror the most up-tp-date details to be had. In Appendix XII, the contents of the accompanying CD-ROM are reviewed. in this CD, readers will locate the Precision Calculator spouse that was once first integrated with the second version of Dr. Bonnick’s identify, Bone Densitometry in medical perform. Questionnaires designed to seize crucial info to make use of FRAX for either women and men also are integrated at the CD. those questionnaires will be persomalized to raised go well with a practice's wishes. ultimately, a continual schooling overview is additionally came across at the CD, which, if effectively accomplished, will lead to the awarding of sixteen hours of type A credits appropriate to the yankee Society of Radiologic Technologists.
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A + sign or − sign is placed in front of the Z-score value to indicate whether the value lies above or below the average value. If the actual value were 2 standard deviations above the average, the Z-score would be +2. 5. In the T-score scale, as it was originally designed but not as used in bone densitometry, the average value was arbitrarily assigned a T-score value of 50. For each standard deviation change in the actual value from the average, the T-score would increase or decrease by 10. If the actual value were 1 standard deviation above the average, the T-score would be 60.
25 % 50 % ? 20 % a These percentages are for DXA PA spine studies only. A volumetric measurement of 100 % trabecular bone could be obtained with QCT b These sites are considered to be highly trabecular, but the exact percentage of trabecular bone is not known Table 1-3 Percentage of Trabecular Bone at Peripheral Sites as Measured by SXA or DXA Calcaneus 95 % a,b 33 % radius or ulna 10 % radius or ulnaa,c 8-mm radius or ulnaa,c 5-mm radius or ulnaa,c 4–5 % radius or ulnaa,d Phalanges 1% 20 % 25 % 40 % 66 % 40 % a See Chap.
Based on those results, formulas for converting each manufacturer’s absolute BMD in the spine to a standardized spine BMD were derived. These formulas are shown in Table 1-5. The value for the standardized BMD or sBMD is multiplied by 1,000 to convert it to mg/cm2 rather than reporting it in g/cm2 to distinguish the sBMD from the nonstandardized value. 069 g/cm2 as shown in Fig. 1-6, this value becomes 1,018 mg/cm2 when reported as the sBMD *See Chap. 6 for a discussion of the European Spine Phantom.