By Robert Triboulet and Paul Siffert (Eds.)
Almost thirty years after the striking monograph of okay. Zanio and the varied meetings and articles devoted on account that that point to CdTe and CdZnTe, in spite of everything the numerous progresses in that box and the expanding curiosity in those fabrics for numerous super beautiful commercial purposes, reminiscent of nuclear detectors and sunlight cells, the variation of a brand new enriched and up to date monograph devoted to those very topical II-VI semiconductor compounds, protecting all their such a lot sought after, glossy and basic features, appeared very correct and important.
- Detailed insurance of the most issues linked to the very topical II-VI semiconductor compound CdTe and its alloy CZT
- Review of the CdTe fresh advancements
- Fundamental historical past of many themes truly brought and exposed
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Extra resources for Cd: Te and Related Compounds; Physics, Defects, Hetero- and Nano-structures, Crystal Growth, Surfaces and Applications. Crystal Growth, Surfaces and Applications
To control the deviation from stoichiometry, the charge composition can be varied and an excess Cd can be added to the charge to compensate for the Cd loss [36, 84, 85]. However, a better control of the stoichiometry can CdTe and CdZnTe Growth 37 be achieved under a definite Cd partial pressure, using a Cd extra source, according to the so-called “modified” Bridgman or gradient freeze techniques [22, 56, 59, 86–96]. To minimize thermal stress, very small axial temperature gradients are now used, generally lower than 10 K/cm and even down to 1 K/cm, besides the larger gradients used in the past.
This system permits low-temperature growth under near-isothermal conditions and controls mass transport without the need of pulling. 46 R. Triboulet flow restrictor cadmium lamp and optics crossmember heating lamp window (1 of 6) vacuum jacket to pump quartz “U” tube ground glass joints upper heater zones source crucible growing crystal mid heater zones quartz block lower heater zones gas inlet or pump to control system to pump detectors Figure 13 The “multitube” vapor growth system (from Ref. ).
CdTe and CdZnTe Growth 31 1 silica plug Cd + Te mixture 2 T3 T1 3 T2 T4 temperature profiles Figure 6 CdTe synthesis in a Te solution in a VB arrangement. Solution synthesis has been achieved according to two different configurations, VB and traveling heater method (THM) ones. In the VB configuration, an ampoule filled by a charge of Cd þ Te in the 40:60 ratio, is placed in position 1 in a VB furnace, the temperature profile of which is schematized in Fig. 6. More details on the arrangement of such a furnace are given in Ref.