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Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design Fundamentals by James Blake Rawlings

By James Blake Rawlings

It is a chemical engineering textbook for undergraduate and graduate scholars in reactor layout and response engineering classes.

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H. Grubbs, and D. A. Bansleben. Neutral, single-component nickel (Il) polyolefin cat­ alysts that tolerate heteroatoms. Science, 287:460-462, 2000. 1 I ntroduction Stoichiometry is defined as the determination o f the proportions in which chemical elements combine or are produced and the weight rela­ tions in any chemical reaction. 1 In this chapter we explore and develop these quantitative relations between the different chemical species un­ dergoing chemical reaction. 4 defines the rates of reactions and rates of produc­ tion of chemical species due to the reactions.

1 (' ,H t 0 1 1 \ UPl' f d \ ( ' e l l ) ') . (JUiJ p \ r drHi C U O ! \ l U ! I , t i l l '; ! ' d C [ ( 1 f I ' , I n d Vl' r t l ( ,{ i ( n l l f 1 l l u l ,l ! 'i f v l ' ; ! ( > ! 1 ; 1 \ q ' l f J i ! l l' . I l l ( Setting the Stage 10 volume divided by the feed volumetric flowrate; this quantity has the units of time, and can be thought of as the time required to displace the equivalent of one reactor volume. Batch times and residence times can be as short as milliseconds for high-temperature, gas·phase reactions, such as ammonia oxidation and HeN synthesis in flow reactors, or as long as days for liquid-phase fermentation reactions in batch reactors.

The transpose of the matrix means to exchange the rows for columns and vice versa. For the first reaction, H20 + CO = C02 + H2, we know or [0 1 0 -1 -1 MH2 ] 1 MOH MH,o = 0 Mco Mco, which is the first row of v in Equation 2 . 7 multiplied b y M . 3 I ndependent React i o n s To motivate the discussion of independence of chemical reactions. let us again consider the water gas shift reaction H20 + CO = C02 + Hz H20 H = Hz + OH OH + CO = C02 + H + ( 2 . 1 6) 36 The Stoichiometry of Reactions The issue of independence centers on the question of whether or not we can express any reaction in the network as a linear combination of the other reactions.

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