By Peter Harriott
Analyzes ideas and strategies for the review, review, and optimization of reactors within the production, chemical, petrochemical, and nutrients processing industries. Illustrates useful layout strategies, price equations, and analytical versions for superior reactor functionality.
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Extra resources for Chemical Reactor Design
Both the dissociation of the complex to S and E and the product-formation step are assumed to be ﬁrst order in ES. A material balance for ES includes the formation rate and the rates of the two reactions removing the complex. Following conventional notation, [S], [E], and [ES] refer to the molar concentrations of substrate, enzyme, and complex, respectively. For a batch reaction, Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group LLC 28 Chapter 1 d½ES ¼ k1 ½E½S À k2 ½ES À k3 ½ES dt ð1:18Þ The total enzyme in the system, ½E0 , is the sum of the free enzyme and the complex: ½E0 ¼ ½E þ ½ES ð1:19Þ A similar equation is not written for the substrate, since the initial substrate concentration, ½S0 , is nearly always much greater than ½E0 , and the amount of substrate in the complex is a negligible fraction of the total.
As1 B þ s2 ! Bs2 As1 þ Bs2 ! C r ¼ kA B0 ¼ ð2:25Þ kKA PA KB0 PB À Á ð1 þ KA PA Þ 1 þ KB0 PB If the product is adsorbed on either type of site, term KCPC or KC0 PC could be added to the denominator terms. The main difference between Eq. 25) and Eq. 24) is that with noncompetitive adsorption, the rate becomes independent of PA and PB at high partial pressures, whereas the rate eventually decreases with PA or PB if A and B are competitively adsorbed. If experimental data show a deﬁnite maximum in the plot of rate versus pressure, competitive adsorption is the likely cause, and Eq.
11. JF Walker, AF Chadwick. Ind Eng Chem 39:974, 1947. 12. J Fischer, LE Trevorrow, GJ Vogel, WA Shinn. Ind Eng Chem Proc Des Dev 1:47, 1962. 13. F Rodriguez, RD Givey. J Polymer Sci 55:713, 1961. 14. KA Holbrook, ARW Marsh. Trans Faraday Soc 63:643, 1967. Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group LLC 2 Kinetic Models for Heterogeneous Reactions When studying the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions or when designing a large catalytic reactor, there are more factors to consider than when dealing with homogeneous reactions.