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Chemistry Fundamentals Handbook by Department of Energy

By Department of Energy

The Chemistry instruction manual was once constructed to aid nuclear facility working contractors in supplying operators, upkeep team of workers, and the technical employees with the mandatory basics education to make sure a simple realizing of chemistry. The instruction manual contains info at the atomic constitution of subject; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions concerned with corrosion procedures; water chemist!*)' regulate, together with the foundations of water therapy; the dangers of chemical compounds and gases, and easy gaseous diffusion tactics. this knowledge will offer group of workers with a origin for knowing the chemical houses of fabrics and how those homes can impose boundaries at the operation of kit and structures.

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Two of the common salts are sodium chloride (table salt) and calcium chloride (salt put on the road in winter). Unlike acids and bases, salts vary greatly in all their properties except their ionic characteristics. Salts may taste salty, sour, bitter, astringent, sweet, or tasteless. Solutions of salts may be acidic, basic, or neutral to acid-base indicators. Fused salts and aqueous solutions of salts conduct an electric current. The reactions of salts are numerous and varied. pH Many compounds dissolve in water and alter the hydrogen ion concentration.

At a given instant, more electrons may be in one region than in another region, as illustrated in Figure 10. The temporary dipole induces a similar temporary dipole on a nearby atom, ion, or molecule. Every instant, billions of these temporary dipoles form, break apart, and reform to act as a weak electrostatic force of attraction known as van der Waals forces. It is important to note that van der Waals forces exist between all kinds of molecules. Some molecules may have these forces, as well as dipole or other intermolecular forces.

The chlorine atom has effectively gained an electron through the covalent bond, which causes the overall negative charge. Figure 9 Coordinate Covalent Bond, Chlorate Ion ClO3 Covalent bonds can be either polar or nonpolar. When the shared pair of electrons is not shared equally, one end of the bond is positive, and the other end is negative. This produces a bond with two poles called a polar covalent bond. CH-01 Page 26 Rev. 0 Fundamentals of Chemistry DOE-HDBK-1015/1-93 CHEMICAL BONDING Molecules having polar covalent bonds are called dipolar or polar molecules.

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