By David E. Hojman (auth.)
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Additional info for Chile: The Political Economy of Development and Democracy in the 1990s
An educational reform in the late 1960s changed the 12-year school cycle from one divided into six years of (compulsory) primary and six years of secondary school, into a cycle of eight and four years respectively. 1 Age and education of the unemployed in 1981 (per thousand) Age group Education None 1-6 years 7-12 years 13 years or more Total 15-19 20-24 25+ Total 2 30 98 1 3 39 223 15 35 283 217 54 40 352 538 70 131 280 589 1,000 Sources: Calculated from INE, Compendia Estadistico (1988), and Foxley and Raczynski (1984), Tables 14, 18 and 19.
Another instance of market failure in the 1980s, this time at the basic and secondary school levels, was that the choice for families 38 Chile was limited to either fully government subsidised or fee-paying schools, with no intermediate options. Only two alternatives, in terms of 'how much quality to buy', were on offer. There may be other reasons why families, poor or not, do not invest more in education. At least some intellectual ability is required for university work, and personal and peer group pressures might be exercised to force youngsters to start earning a wage or salary as soon as possible.
4 million between 1983 and 1989. 3 per cent in the whole country in 1983-89. The unemployment rates presented here are the official ones. Surprisingly, this means that the actual improvement in the unemployment rate during the period was even better than that recorded by them. This is because the official figures consider those in the emergency employment programmes PEM and POJH as employed (whereas the opposition economists counted them as unemployed). The number of workers in PEM and POJH declined steadily during the mid-1980s, until these programmes were suspended at the end of 1988.