By Reinhard Rohkamm
Nordwest-Krankenhaus Sanderbusch, Sande, Germany. Pocket atlas deals high quality colour illustrations and distinct details at the analysis of indicators and symptoms of neurologic illness. Emphasizes stipulations most often obvious in medical perform. additionally contains the basics of the anatomic constitution of the fearful method. Softcover.
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Vestibulocochlear n. Hypoglossal n. Trochlear n. Trigeminal n. Abducens n. Pituitary stalk Oculomotor n. Cavernous sinus Optic n. Olfactory bulb and tract Cranial nerves at the base of the skull Rohkamm, Color Atlas of Neurology © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. 29 Argo light Argo Spine and Spinal Cord Spine and Spinal Cord Spine The spine (vertebral column) bears the weight of the head, neck, trunk and upper extremities. Its flexibility is greatest in the cervical region, intermediate in the lumbar region, and lowest in the thoracic region.
Pathological reflexes indicating dysfunction of the pyramidal (corticospinal) tract include the Babinski sign (tonic dorsiflexion of the great toe on stimulation of the lateral sole of the foot), the Gordon reflex (same response to squeezing of the calf muscles), and the Oppenheim reflex (same response to a downward stroke of the examiner’s thumb on the patient’s shin). Rohkamm, Color Atlas of Neurology © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved. Usage subject to terms and conditions of license. , Jendrassik maneuver) + _ Diminished Normal intensity Heightened Persistent clonus 1 2 3 4 Extensor muscle Reflex response (Proprioceptive muscle reflex) Afferent (Ia) fiber Efferent fiber (excitatory) Efferent fiber (inhibitory) Flexor muscle Pseudounipolar nerve cells in spinal ganglion Supraspinal control (inhibitory) Afferent fiber Proprioceptive (intrinsic) muscle reflex Motor Function Reflex response Absent, cannot be elicited by maneuvers Efferent to extensors Annulospiral ending of muscle spindle Extensor Excitatory synapse Efferent fibers to contralateral extensors and flexors Interneuron Flexor Inhibitory synapse Efferent fibers to ipsilateral flexors and extensors Efferent to flexors Afferent (Ia) fiber Free ending of afferent fiber (pain, temperature) Supraspinal control (inhibitory) Interneurons Pressure receptor (Vater-Pacini corpuscle) Afferent fiber Fibers to contralateral side of commissural cell Inhibitory synapse Excitatory synapse Extrinsic muscle reflex Extensor muscle Rohkamm, Color Atlas of Neurology © 2004 Thieme All rights reserved.
The division of the skin into dermatomes reflects the segmental organization of the spinal cord and its associated nerves. Pain dermatomes are narrower, and overlap with each other less, than touch dermatomes (p. 104); thus, the level of a spinal cord lesion causing sensory impairment is easier to determine by pinprick testing than by light touch. , in a dermatome; pseudoradicular pain may occupy a bandlike area but cannot be assigned to any particular dermatome. Pseudoradicular pain can be caused by tendomyosis (pain in the muscles that move a particular joint), generalized tendomyopathy or fibromyalgia, facet syndrome (inflammation of the intervertebral joints), myelogelosis (persistent muscle spasm resulting from overexertion), and other conditions.