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Comment tremble la main invisible: Incertitude et marches by Éric Brian

By Éric Brian

Il est largement admis aujourd’hui que l. a. crise financière amorcée en 2007, et accentuée � l’automne 2008, a révélé une faille dans les systèmes de gestion des risques, une défaillance des concepts de fixation des prix et une démesure des interventions spéculatives. Répondant � ce constat, ce livre suggest une nouvelle approche de los angeles cohérence des marchés – de ce que Adam Smith a appelé los angeles « major invisible ». Il examine les conséquences de cette hypothèse sur l. a. modélisation des phénomènes financiers et le comportement des investisseurs.

Issu d’une vingtaine d’années de recherches en épistémologie des sciences économiques et sociales, l’ouvrage s’adresse aux économistes, aux sociologues et aux mathématiciens. En six chapitres, il présente une esquisse de l’histoire des rapports entre économie et mathématiques du hasard ; une définition du cadre hypothétique retenu pour l’analyse ; un bilan de los angeles point of view probabiliste sur los angeles cohérence des marchés ; une critique des conceptions de los angeles valeur fondée sur des cadres désormais dépassés ; une exploration de l’incertitude des marchés financiers ; enfin, un élargissement de los angeles « théorie de l’action rationnelle ». Il s’agit finalement de rendre compte aussi bien des activities de donneurs d’ordres surinformés que de celles d’exclus du monde économique régulier.

Au fil de l’ouvrage, il apparaît clairement que los angeles « major invisible » tremble aléatoirement, et pas toujours l� où on l’imagine. Les associations et les calculs économiques enregistrent et transforment cette incertitude. Les attentes de chacun lui répondent, les plus mesurées comme les plus extravagantes.

Éric Brian, historien des sciences et sociologue, est directeur d’études � l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS) et dirige los angeles Revue de synthèse. Il est membre de los angeles path du CNRS.

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Extra info for Comment tremble la main invisible: Incertitude et marches

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He wanted his readers to recognise for themselves what was implicit in their own linguistic practices. He regarded philosophy as a means to an end-namely, the liberation of men's minds. As I noted earlier, the impact of Wittgenstein's later work can be seen as a kind of therapy. ' 45 That is to say, rather than answering a question, the philosopher 'treats' it. The aim of philosophy is not completeness or comprehensiveness, nor is it exactness; it is to help us untie the knots of our own thought.

In other words, one must understand gestures, smiles, and so on, bifore one can understand a language. As Wittgenstein observes: 'If you went to Mars and men were spheres with sticks coming out, you wouldn't know what to look for. ' 63 We know that children do learn the meaning of at least some gestures and signs-smiling, anger-before they acquire language. Unless there are some similarities between the non-verbal behaviour of an individual and of those whose language he is trying to learn and understand, the understanding and translation of that language would prove impossible.

The correlation constitutes the pictorial relationship of the picture. Every sentence is a picture of a state of affairs. The objects in the state of affairs stand in a one-to-one correspondence with the terms in the sentence that refer to these objects. Names are among the simple unanalysable elements of a proposition. 9 A name refers to an object; it is the proxy in the proposition for the object. 10 Not only are names correlated with objects, but also the relationships between the names in a proposition must be correlated with relationships between objects in facts.

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