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The more clearly defined the criterion, the better the validity. Again, make use of cultural focus groups to identify criterion that may be culturally bound. 4. It is possible that a test can be culturally valid, but lacking in fairness, in that the weight and consequence of a measure may disproportionately hurt one cultural population over another. 5. Culture can become systematic error in a measure. 6. Reliability is only a good indication of minimized measurement error when you know that there is no possibility of systematic error in a measure.
For example, African Americans have been found to have higher rates of mental disorders as compared to European Americans and Mexican Americans but these findings vary with acculturation level (Robins, Locke, & Regier, 1991; Ying, 1995). , Landrine & Klonoff, 1996) although this is not the case for all ethnic groups or with physical health. Higher acculturated Mexican Americans, for example, have been found to be more depressed than recent immigrants with lower acculturation scores (Vega, Kolody, Aguilar-Gaxiola, Alderete, Catalano, & Caraveo-Anduaga, 1998).
As such, particular caution should be taken with measures that were designed and validated in one culture and language, then translated into another. Verify that the change in the instrument went beyond a mere language translation. Verify that construct validity is reevaluated with the translated measure. Also verify that a new normative sample is used and that this sample is representative of the population for which the translated measure is intended (Geisinger, 1994). , Geisinger, 1994), it is important to take into account five key components with translation to assure validity.