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Deposition of diamond-like superhard materials by Wilhelm A.M. Kulisch

By Wilhelm A.M. Kulisch

This e-book offers with the deposition of a definite category of fabrics, particularly the diamond-like superhard fabrics, within the type of skinny motion pictures. ranging from techniques used to enhance the hardness of a fabric, it truly is proven that the intrinsic hardness is optimum for fabrics with low bond lengths, excessive coordination numbers, and coffee ionicities. it's extra proven that such diamond-like fabrics (e.g. diamond, cubic boron nitride, tetrahedrically bonded carbon nitride) are special by means of a number of different specified and severe houses.

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G. for hot-filament CVD, HFCVD) this definition is somewhat more difficult since the region of high temperatures is relatively small and not sharply separated from the rest of the gas volume. 1 T I r T C2 H2 65 ///,,/t I::1 -I ,@,e T ,/ -2 /7"--.. -3 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 t e m p e r a t u r e [~ Fig. 2. 1 mol CH4 in 10 tool H2 at 40 mbar. The carbon-containing species have been normalized with respect to the total carbon concentration, and [H*] with respect to the total hydrogen concentration.

This is mainly due to the properties of the films obtained up to now: ta-C layers possess, on the one hand, a high hardness and other excellent mechanical properties but also, on the other hand, a high compressive stress which prevents the deposition of thicker films. Further current problems concern the poor temperature stability and the incorporation of macroparticles (see Sect. 4). 3 C u b i c B o r o n N i t r i d e As in the case of carbon, a vast variety of crystalline and amorphous modifications of boron nitride are known.

In the context of the topic of this book, the following consequences of the partially ionic character of the B-N bond are of importance. On the one hand, the ionicity of course influences the chemical processes taking place during the deposition of c-BN films 5. 1) and thus a lower hardness, too. Nevertheless, it will be shown in Sect. 3 that the ionicity of the B - N bond is of advantage for the crystallinity of c-BN films. 3. Boron nitride is a binary compound. This implies the following differences from carbon: (i) The deposition of c-BN films requires one to fulfill the stoichiometry condition B / N ~ 1.

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