By Paddy Mannion
Chapter 1 rules of Diagnostic Ultrasound (pages 1–19): Paddy Mannion
Chapter 2 Ultrasound Artefacts (pages 20–25): Johann Lang
Chapter three symptoms and strategy (pages 26–37): Paddy Mannion
Chapter four Imaging of the overall stomach (pages 38–49): Johann Lang
Chapter five The Liver and Spleen (pages 50–80): Paddy Mannion
Chapter 6 Gastro?intestinal Tract together with Pancreas (pages 81–108): Mairi Frame
Chapter 7 Urinary Tract (pages 109–144): Johann Lang
Chapter eight Imaging of the Reproductive Tract (pages 145–169): Alison Dickie
Chapter nine Non?Cardiac Thoracic Ultrasound (pages 170–187): Paddy Mannion
Chapter 10 Imaging the guts (pages 188–215): Johann Lang
Chapter eleven Doppler Ultrasound (pages 216–226): Johann Lang
Chapter 12 Imaging of the Neck (pages 227–250): Alison Dickie
Chapter thirteen Imaging of the Musculoskeletal method (pages 251–277): Alison Dickie
Chapter 14 Imaging of the attention and Orbit (pages 278–300): Val Schmid
Chapter 15 Ultrasound of unique Species (pages 301–329): Sharon Redrobe
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Additional info for Diagnostic Ultrasound in Small Animal Practice
2002) Abdominal Ultrasound Scanning Techniques. In: Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound, 2nd edn, pp. 49–81. W. B. , Philadelphia. Indications and Technique Menard, M. & Papageorges, M. (1995) Technique for Ultrasound-guided Fine Needle Biopsies. In: Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, 36, 137– 138. Nyland, T. , Mattoon, J. , Herrgesell, E. , et al. (2002) Ultrasoundguided Biopsy. In: Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound, 2nd edn, pp. 30–48. W. B. , Philadelphia. 37 38 Chapter 4 Diagnostic Ultrasound in Small Animal practice Paddy Mannion Copyright © 2006 by Blackwell Science Ltd Chapter 4 Imaging of the General Abdomen Johann Lang Imaging procedure Indications for general abdominal ultrasound include disease of the abdominal organs, suspected primary or metastatic neoplasia, generalised lymphadenopathy, ascites, abdominal pain, trauma or abnormal blood results.
For the same reason the midabdominal area must be checked for problems within the mesenteric nodes. Transducer Choosing the correct transducer is important. 5 or 10 MHz transducer may be used. It is often helpful with larger dogs to start the examination using a lower frequency, such as a 5 MHz transducer, and then swapping over to a higher frequency, which will allow a more detailed examination of the individual organs. This provides a general overview before looking at more speciﬁc changes. Echocardiography even in small dogs is usually best performed using a 5 MHz transducer.
The normal echogenicity may vary from patient to patient. This can make assessment of diffuse disease processes very difﬁcult and so a system whereby the appearance of the liver is compared with that of the spleen and the right kidney has been developed. This reduces the effects of normal variation and machine settings. 2). Compared with the right kidney, the liver has an increased echogenicity but this relationship is highly variable as in some normal animals the liver is isoechoic compared with the kidney and in others it is hypoechoic.